Tools and Resources

Dell-AAUW Playbook on Best Practices: Gender Equity in Tech 

A product of a partnership between the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and Dell, the Playbook equips advocates and employers with data-driven strategies and actionable steps to increase the representation of women in engineering and computing fields – to accelerate the rate of change and break through barriers for women in the workplace. 

STEMpacks—lesson guides and materials for hands-on learning

  • The Aerospace Engineering STEMpack, developed by AAUW and the Arconic Foundation introduces middle school students to physics and engineering through the history of flight, the physics and construction of aircraft, such as a hot air balloon and rocket, and more.
  • The Cyber Security STEMpack, developed by the world’s leading cyber security company Symantec in partnership with AAUW aims to inspire and introduce participants to cyber security and computer science. The sequential lessons cover the origins of the internet, binary code, programming languages and coding, deconstructing a computer, and other skills.

Download the two STEMpacks at the bottom of the page here.

United States of America

Asia Foundation and CSIS Host 2016 Trilateral Dialogue on Advancing Women’s Economic Opportunities

The 2020 Trilateral Summit on Women’s Leadership in STEM builds on the 2016 trilateral dialogue on Advancing Women’s Economic Opportunities: Lessons from Japan, South Korea, and the United States.  The dialogue between government, private sector and civil society representatives featured experts from the three countries who shared their strategies to empower women economically and compared lessons and best practices. 

APEC Women@Work 

This brief examines how laws and regulations affect women’s workforce participation and advancement in the formal workforce. It provides examples of effective laws, policies, and approaches that can support working women and parents to thrive and advance in the workplace.  This report was authored by Nathan Associates and launched by the U.S. Government at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Women and the Economy Forum that took place on September 30 – October 5, 2019 in La Serena, Chile.

Solving the Equation: The Variables for Women’s Success in Engineering and Computing 

Women are significantly under-represented in engineering and computer science – two of the most lucrative STEM fields. Only 21% of engineering and 19% of computer science majors are women. American Association of University Women’s (AAUW) research explores ways to stop deterring girls from pursuing math and science and make these field more welcoming for women. 

Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics 

This AAUW report presents evidence that social and environmental factors contribute to the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering.  Learn about how policies and practices can be changed to increase opportunities in STEM for girls and women. 

Males Under-Estimate Academic Performance of Their Female Peers in Undergraduate Biology Classrooms 

In this study researchers Daniel Grunspan and Sarah Eddy explore how the social environment undergraduate women experience in the classroom can result in women leaving these fields in greater proportions than their male peers.  Research considers how gender influences the confidence that college-level biology students have in each other’s mastery of biology.  Results indicate a strong male preference bias among male students when assessing their classmates, which could influence female students’ self-confidence and persistence in the STEM discipline. 

Stereotypes About Gender and Science: Women ≠ Scientists  

This 2016 study published in Psychology of Women Quarterly assesses the similarity between stereotypes about women and men, and stereotypes about successful scientists. Results are consistent with role-congruity and lack-of-fit theories that report incompatibility of female gender stereotypes with stereotypes about high-status occupational roles. The results demonstrate that women are perceived to lack the qualities needed to be successful scientists, which may contribute to discrimination and prejudice against female scientists.  

Quality of evidence revealing subtle gender biases in science is in the eye of the beholder 

In this 2015 study researchers Ian Handley, Elizabeth Brown, Corinne Moss-Racusin, and Jessi Smith consider whether men and women are equally receptive to research findings that illustrate gender bias in STEM. Results from this 2015 study suggest a relative reluctance among men, especially faculty men within STEM, to accept evidence of gender biases in STEM fields. This is a significant barrier to broadening the participation of underrepresented people in STEM, including women, because it requires a widespread willingness (particularly by those in the majority) to acknowledge bias exists before transformation is possible.


A Cultural Perspective on Gender Inequity in STEM: The Japanese Context

This London School of Economics and Political Science paper contributes a cultural perspective to understanding gender inequality in STEM fields and advocates for applying a social-structural lens concerning societal structures, processes, and meanings associated with gender.  Authors discuss dominant gender roles in Japanese society, particularly regarding expectations surrounding motherhood and working hours, and offer a bottom-up approach to address gender inequality in STEM and positions of leadership.

Parental gender attitudes associated with Japanese girls’ reduced university participation

Research from the University of Tokyo suggests that parents’ stereotypical attitudes towards gender roles and negative perceptions of STEM may be associated with girls’ reduced university participation in STEM fields.  This suggests that improving attitudes toward gender equality and field-specific perceptions may increase parental support for girls’ choice of STEM fields.

Japan’s Woman Problem

Less than 15% of researchers in Japan are female – about half the average of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEDC) countries.  This article published on Nature Index explores “leaky pipelines,” underrepresentation of women in STEM, high housework/care burdens for women, gender bias, and cultural norms as factors that contribute to the lack of female participation in STEM fields in Japan.

Republic of Korea

2018 Report on Women and Men in Science, Engineering & Technology 

This Center for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology (WISET) report includes the overall status of women and men in STEM, current rates of enrollment in STEM education and employment, utilization of STEM opportunities, and the legal and institutional support systems for women and men in STEM.  Available in Korean language.

The 2018 Policy Report on Balanced Development of Human Resources for the Future 

The Association of Korean Woman Scientists & Engineers (KWSE) 2018 report examines United National Development Program (UNDP) and World Economic Forum (WEF) indices to compare the status of human resources development and gender equality in 61 countries, including Korea and Japan.  The policy report discusses results of the 2018 joint survey of 2,094 female and male students majoring in science and engineering on gender barriers in science and technology.

The 2016 Policy Report on Balanced Development of Human Resources for the Future

The 2016 Policy Report focuses on fully utilizing highly educated female scientists and engineers to balance the development of human resources. The 2016 joint survey involved 1,379 female scientists and engineers from 13 member countries; it explored the perception of discrimination, experiences of discrimination, the concept of gender role ideology, career prospects, policy demands, and the concept of gender equality.  This survey builds upon data from the 2014 joint survey and the 2015 survey on The Glass Ceiling for Asian Women in STEM. 

Persistent Effects of Teacher-Student Gender Matches 

This 2017 study, released by the National Bureau of Economic Research, analyzes data from middle schools in Seoul, South Korea to explore how the gender of instructors influences student performance and attitudes, particularly in STEM.  The study discovered that female students taught by a female teacher score higher on standardized tests compared to male their male peers, even five years later. The study also found that having a female math teacher in 7th grade increases the likelihood that female students take higher-level math courses, aspire to a STEM degree, and attend a STEM-focused high school.


2017 Policy Report on Gender Barriers in Science and Engineering in the Asia and Pacific Nations 

This annual study explores findings of the international joint survey of 13 member countries, including Korea and Japan, conducted by KWSE as part of the international cooperation policy project. Acknowledging that gender barriers and gender inequality are relevant to both men and women, the KWSE’s 2017 project explored how men in STEM perceived gender barriers. Survey questions explored “the perception of gender barrier,” “experience of gender barrier,” “perception on supporting law or policy to overcome gender barrier,” and the “concept of gender equality.”

Why Aren’t There More Women in Tech?

This article and compelling graphic from Next Generation provides data on female participation in the tech and explores why women are underrepresented, citing gender stereotypes, limited talent pool, in-group favoritism, and unsupportive, at times hostile work cultures as factors that contribute to the lack of women in tech.  This piece also discusses how gender diversity benefits companies and initiatives to achieve greater parity.


Women and the Future of Work

Women and the Future of Work

This article featured in the Stanford Social Innovation Review explores the vulnerabilities to job loss that disproportionately affect women due to automation and the proliferation of artificial intelligence of the fourth industrial revolution.  This is due to a higher concentration of women in lower-and middle-skilled jobs and is aggravated by lower rates of women in STEM fields.  This article provides recommendation for business leaders and public policy makers to shift social norms and attitudes to encourage more women and girls to enter STEM fields; reframe understandings of work to implement inclusive social protection policies and infrastructure; and ultimately, harness the opportunities technology presents for women workers.  

Gender, Technology, and the Future of Work

This IMF discussion note explores the gender implications of new technologies and the changing nature of work; how women are uniquely vulnerable; and what policies can support a closing, opposed to a widening of gender gaps amid shifts in the future of work.